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Inessive

The Inessive (inessiivi) case is part of the internal locative cases. It typically corresponds to the “in” preposition in English, and usually refers to something being inside of something else. In Finnish it is indicated by the -ssa/-ssä suffix.

Concept

Including, but not limited to:

  • When something is inside of something else.
  • When an object has or contains something.
  • When phrasing or expressing time.

Usage

When something is inside of something else

If something is inside of something else simply add the -ssa/-ssä suffix.

WordTranslationExampleTranslation
TaloHouseTalossa,
taloissa
In the house(s)
KaappiCupboardKaapissa,
kaapeissa
In the cupboard(s)
LaatikkoBoxLaatikossa,
laatikoissa
In the box(es)
TaskuPocketTaskussa,
taskuissa
In the pocket(s)
AutoCarAutossa,
autoissa
In the car(s)

When an object has or contains something

Used when something has or contains a different object inside of it.

WordTranslation
Huoneessa on sohvaIn the room there is a sofa
Puussa on lintuIn the tree there is a bird
Laatikossa on kuviaIn the box there are some pictures
Kirjahyllyssä on kirjojaIn the bookshelf there are some books
Metsässä on puitaIn the forest there are some trees

When phrasing or expressing time

To identify in a describable amount of time how long until something happens.

WordTranslation
Viidessä minuutissaIn 5 minutes
Kaksi kertaa viikossaTwice per week
Kerran kuussaOnce per month
ElokussaIn August
Kahdessa vuodessaIn 2 years

Formation

When words end in a single vowel

Words that end in a single vowel of -a/-ä, -o/-ö or -u/-y simply add the ssa/ssä suffix.

WordConjugation
TaloTalossa
SänkySängyssä
KaappiKaapissa

When words end in -e

Words that end in -e acquire a second -e before adding the ssa/ssä suffix.

WordConjugation
HuoneHuoneessa
VeneVeneessä
LentokoneLentokoneessa

When words end in -nen

Words that end in -nen change to -se before adding the ssa/ssä suffix.

WordConjugation
SuomalainenSuomalaisessa
IloinenIloisessa
TuulinenTuulisessa

New Finnish words

New Finnish words typically look or sound like words in other languages. They perhaps most commonly seem to resemble English words. These words simply add the ssa/ssä suffix.

WordConjugation
PankkiPankissa
BussiBussissa
KahviKahvissa

Old Finnish words

Old Finnish words that end in -i change to -e before adding the ssa/ssä suffix.

WordConjugation
SuomiSuomessa
JärviJärvessä
KiviKivessä

Old Finnish words ending in -si

Old Finnish words that end in -si change to -de before adding the ssa/ssä suffix.

WordConjugation
UusiUudessa
KuukausiKuukaudessa
VuosiVuodessa