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Adessive

The Adessive (adessiivi) case is part of the external locative cases. It typically corresponds to the “at”, “on” or “around” prepositions in English, and usually refer to being externally closeby or around something. In Finnish it is indicated by the -lla/-llä suffix.

Concept

Including, but not limited to:

  • When something is at, near or around something.
  • When something is on top of something.
  • When referring to open spaces.
  • When describing possession.
  • When being or going by or with something.
  • When phrasing or expressing time.

Usage

When something is at, near, or around something

If something has a close proximity to something else, such as being near or around it, add the -lla/-llä suffix.

WordTranslationExampleTranslation
TaloHouseTalolla,
taloilla
Around the house(s)
KaappiCupboardKaapilla,
kaapeilla
Around the cupboard(s)
LaatikkoBoxLaatikolla,
laatikoilla
Around the box(es)
KauppaStoreKaupalla,
kaupoilla
Around the store(s)
AutoCarAutolla,
autoilla
Around the car(s)

When something is on top of something

Physically on top where both objects can be identified.

WordTranslation
Lasi on pöydälläThe glass is on the table
Kirja on hyllylläThe book is on the shelf
Kissa on tuolillaThe cat is on the chair

When referring to open spaces

Places that typically do not have a roof or cover over them.

WordTranslation
KadullaOn/around the street
KentälläIn/around the field
PihallaIn/around the yard

When describing possession

When someone or something has something else.

WordTranslation
Minulla on koiraI have a dog
Sinulla on autoYou have a car
Heillä on ruokaaThey have some food

When being or going by or with something

Usually to indicate physical or close proximity to something.

WordTranslation
Minä matkustan metrollaI travel by/with the metro
Hän tulee pyörälläHe comes by bicycle
Kuuntelen musiikkia kuulokkeillaI listen to music with headphones

When phrasing or expressing time

When identifying a general period of time something occurs the Adessive case is used.

WordTranslation
PäivälläDuring the day
Viime viikollaLast week
Huomenna illallaTomorrow evening

Formation

When words end in a single vowel

Words that end in a single vowel of -a/-ä, -o/-ö or -u/-y simply add the -lla/-llä suffix.

WordConjugation
AutoAutolla
PöytäPöydällä
SänkySängyllä

When words end in -e

Words that end in -e acquire a second -e before adding the -lla/-llä suffix.

WordConjugation
LaudeLauteella
ParvekeParvekkeella
TieTiellä

When words end in -nen

Words that end in -nen change to -se before adding the -lla/-llä suffix.

WordConjugation
KivinenKivisellä
PunainenPunaisella
YkkönenYkkösellä

New Finnish words

New Finnish words typically look or sound like words in other languages. They perhaps most commonly seem to resemble English words. These words simply add the -lla/-llä suffix.

WordConjugation
PankkiPankilla
BussiBussilla
KahviKahvilla

Old Finnish words

Old Finnish words that end in -i change to -e before adding the -lla/-llä suffix.

WordConjugation
SuomiSuomella
JärviJärvellä
KiviKivellä

Old Finnish words ending in -si

Old Finnish words that end in -si change to -de before adding the -lla/-llä suffix.

WordConjugation
UusiUudella
KuukausiKuukaudella
VuosiVuodella