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Ablative

The Ablative (ablatiivi) case is part of the internal locative cases. It typically corresponds to the “from” preposition in English, and usually refers to a change or observation of something going from somewhere “externally closeby to outside”. This is not always exact and depends on the context. In Finnish it is indicated by the -lta/-ltä suffix.

Concept

Including, but not limited to:

  • When something is going away from a place it is near or around.
  • When phrasing or expressing time.
  • When using certain (and often perceptional) verbs.

Usage

When something is going away from a place it is near or around

The Ablative (-lta/-ltä) locative case often corresponds to the Adessive locative case (-lla/-llä) in that something goes away from a place it is near or around.

WordTranslationExampleTranslation
TaloHouseTalolta,
taloilta
From around the house(s)
KaappiCupboardKaapilta,
kaapeilta
From around the cupboard(s)
LaatikkoBoxLaatikolta,
laatikoilta
From around the box(es)
KauppaStoreKaupalta,
kaupoilta
From around the store(s)
AutoCarAutolta,
autoilta
From around the car(s)

When phrasing or expressing time

To identify at what time something happens the Ablative case is used. This is only used for half or full hours and only between 1-12.

WordTranslation
Kello yhdeltäAt 1
Kello kahdeksaltaAt 8
Puoli kahdeltatoistaAt half 12 (11:30)

When using certain verbs

Often when giving an opinion that relates to one’s senses or perceptions the Ablative locative case is used.

WordTranslation
Ruoka maistuu hyvältäThe food tastes good
Se haisee pahaltaIt smells bad
He näyttävät surullisiltaThey look sad

Formation

When words end in a single vowel

Words that end in a single vowel of -a/-ä, -o/-ö or -u/-y simply add the -lta/-ltä suffix.

WordConjugation
AutoAutolta
PöytäPöydältä
SänkySängyltä

When words end in -e

Words that end in -e acquire a second -e before adding the -lta/-ltä suffix.

WordConjugation
ParvekeParvekkeelta
TampereTampereelta
TieTieltä

When words end in -nen

Words that end in -nen change to -se before adding the -lta/-ltä suffix.

WordConjugation
KivinenKiviseltä
PunainenPunaiselta
YkkönenYkköseltä

New Finnish words

New Finnish words typically look or sound like words in other languages. They perhaps most commonly seem to resemble English words. These words simply add the -lta/-ltä suffix.

WordConjugation
PankkiPankilta
BussiBussilta
KioskiKioskilta

Old Finnish words

Old Finnish words that end in -i change to -e before adding the -lta/-ltä suffix.

WordConjugation
HelmiHelmeltä
KylkiKyljeltä
TalviTalvelta

Old Finnish words ending in -si

Old Finnish words that end in -si change to -de before adding the -lta/-ltä suffix.

WordConjugation
UusiUudelta
KuukausiKuukaudelta
VuosiVuodelta